tests sold per month

years in business

personality & aptitude tests available

About Our Founders

Lucy Gibson, Ph.D.

Co-Founder

Dr. Lucy Gibson co-founded Resource Associates in 1980 with husband Dr. John Lounsbury. An accomplished industrial/organizational psychologist, Dr. Gibson’s vast experience in the areas of test development, test validation, and implementation of selection testing programs built Resource Associates into a leader in the field.

In addition to being well-published, she taught research methods, statistics, program evaluation and human resource management at the University of Tennessee and Tusculum College in Knoxville, Tennessee.

Dr. Gibson acted as Vice President of Resource Associates until her passing in 2015 from complications of ALS. She was well-loved by her community, her clients, and truly, any and all who knew her. Adding to her many professional accomplishments, she was the beloved mother to two daughters, Mary Gibson and Amy Sparks. Mary, along with long-time colleague and friend Nancy Foster, Ph.D., sit at the helm of Resource Associates, leading Dr. Gibson’s vision into the future.

John Lounsbury, Ph.D.

Co-Founder

Dr. John Lounsbury’s legacy is marked by scholarly achievements and his profound impact as a mentor, teacher and academic.

After attaining his B.A. from Portland State University and M.A. from the University of Calgary, he completed his Ph.D. at Michigan State University. As Professor of Psychology at University of Tennessee from 1976 until his retirement in 2016, John was remarkable as a teacher and prolific researcher. He cared enormously about students and was a tireless advocate for them. He chaired 56 and served as a member on 345 graduate student committees. His research focused on personality measurement and assessment, career assessment, and development. He published over 100 journal articles.

As a licensed Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, he consulted with Time-Warner, Levi Strauss, U.S. Department of Energy, Monster.com, Arvin North American, Pilot Corporation, eCareerFit, Daikin Drivetrain, Arvin North American Automotive, and 7-Eleven Corporation.

View a list of Dr. Lounsbury’s published works on Google Scholar by clicking here.

The Staff of Resource Associates

Nancy A. Foster, Ph.D.

Vice President, Marketing & Assessments

Mary Gibson

Office Manager

J. Adrian Barnes, MCSD

Information Technology Specialist

Nancy A. Foster, Ph.D.

Vice President of Marketing and Assessments

Dr. Foster has degrees in psychology and marketing. She earned her Ph.D. in experimental psychology at the University of Tennessee under the guidance of Resource Associates’ President and founding member, John Lounsbury, Ph.D.

Her research interests include career development and the investigation of personality traits for predicting performance, satisfaction and tenure in both organizational and academic contexts.


Mary Gibson

Office Manager

Mary Gibson joined RA in 1998 after obtaining her bachelor’s degree in communications & advertising. She currently handles the duties of Operations Manager, Accounts Receivable/Payable, and Psychometrician. She manages all aspects of RA’s internet-based assessment administration site, including new client / candidate set-up, assessment technical support, online database management, and quality assurance. Mary can help answer questions about where your candidate’s results might be in our system at any particular time.


Eric Sundstrom, Ph.D.

Consultant

A successful organizational consultant for over 20 years, Dr. Sundstrom has helped a variety of manufacturing and service organizations implement systems based on work teams at AT&T, ALCOA, Exxon USA, M&M Mars, Northern Telecom, United Technologist Corporation, Weyerhauser, and others.He has also maintained an independent consulting practice complementary with his position as professor of psychology at the University of Tennessee.

An international author specializing in working environment, Dr. Sundstrom has over 60 professional publications. His book, “Work Places: The Psychology of the Physical Environment in Offices and Factories” was published in 1986 by Cambridge University Press with a Japanese edition in 1992. He has articles in Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, as well as chapters in textbooks, and professional reference books. A licensed Psychologist since 1974, he is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, and Charter Fellow of the American Psychological Society. He is a certified SYMLOG consultant and has had advanced applications training on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.


Jacob J. Levy, Ph.D.

Consultant

Dr. Jacob Levy is an assistant professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Tennessee. His primary professional and research interests are in personality testing and test development.

Dr. Levy has authored and co-authored several journal articles and book chapters on psychological assessment and testing. He has special expertise in cross-cultural assessment, and is dedicated in providing appropriate services for people of diverse backgrounds. Formerly on faculty at the University of Southern Mississippi, Dr. Levy earned his doctorate in counseling psychology from Indiana University and has provided psychological services in variety of treatment and academic settings.

His work with Resource Associates involves executive assessments, personality scale development, and applications of personality assessment for selection, personal development in sports, personal development with adolescents, and career development with the general adult population.


J. Adrian Barnes, MCSD

Information Technology Specialist

Adrian Barnes manages web application development, reporting, programming, and technical support for Resource Associates, Inc. He is also the President of Ravine Software, Inc., a Knoxville-based technology company.

Adrian has worked with Resource Associates since 2002 when he was tasked to rewrite their online testing system. He received his Bachelor of Science in Organizational Management from Tusculum College in 2002, and his Associate of Applied Science in Computer Science from Pellissippi State Technical Community College in 1997. Adrian is also a Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer (MCSD). Adrian works with other members of the Resource Associates team to maintain and continuously improve the online testing, customer, and administrative portals. He also works closely with Resource Associates clients to implement any custom reporting, scoring, or integration needs. Adrian will help you and your technical staff to ensure a smooth testing process and that our testing system meets all of your needs.

Satisfied Clients

Companies Trust RA.

Adam H. DeFrancesco, CEO, OMNI Systems

The Resource Associates pre-employment assessment tests have made a significant improvement to the overall effectiveness of our hiring process at OMNI Systems. Prior to using the RA assessment OMNI’s success at identifying employees that “fit” into our company culture...

Sheri Redelman

We have been working with Resource Associates for over ten years now. They have always been helpful with identifying the best testing criteria for our company. They are always quick to respond to any requests. We utilize their on-line as well as hard copy testing...

Kim Thistle, Hiring Manager

We use both the Pattern Series of Abstract Reasoning and the Entry Level Worker Aptitude Battery (Mechanical and 3-D Reasoning, Visual Inspection) as part of our pre-screening for all potential hires. Using these has been very beneficial in helping us determing...

John, Operations Manager

My company started using RA assessments in our hiring process early in 2016 and quickly made the assessment a standard part of our interview process. We even developed guidelines for internal use specifying minimum scores in various areas of the test results for a...

Dan Holloway, VP Human Resources & General Affairs

I have had the pleasure of working with Resource Associates for 20+ years. The level of customer service and professionalism has always been top-notch. Through proper statistical analysis, I have been able to verify the true value of their products, which in the end...

Al Pirie, Human Resources

In my role in Human Resources, I’ve used Resource Associates to conduct pre-employment assessments for more than 25 years — including during two “green field” automotive plant start-ups. My experience is that the assessment reports are an excellent predictor of...

Resource Associates Personal Style Inventory Manual

Our Foundational Research on the
Personal Style Inventory

The Personal Style Inventory, or PSI, is the foundation behind Resource Associates’ personality assessments for the work place. Learn more about the PSI by clicking here to download the Personal Style Inventory Technical Manual.

Research on Pre-Employment Testing

Research forms the basis of the comprehensive pre-employment tests we sell. Our work is reflective of the highest standards of the profession — our research is submitted and accepted for articles in peer-reviewed and scholarly journals. Bear in mind, most scholarly journals have a tremendous rejection rate — only the best (which can take years to finish) makes it to publication. And since our research is subject to a rigorous critique process within the scientific community, you can be assured the tests we have created are unquestionably valid and reliable.

Following is a selection of scholarly works produced by staff and consultants of Resource Associates for your review.

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Barthelemy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J.W. (2009) The relationship between aggression and the big five personality factors in predicting academic success

Barthelemy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J.W. (2009). The relationship between aggression and the big five personality factors in predicting academic success. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 159-170.  ABSTRACT: This study of high school students showed that Big Five personality traits are positively related to academic success, but when Aggression was added to the regression model, three variables were significantly correlated to grades: Conscientiousness, Openness, and Aggression.

Cook, V.D. (2005) An Investigation of the Construct Validity of the Resource Associates’ Big Five Construct of Emotional Stability in Relation to Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Career Satisfaction

Cook, V.D. (2005)  An Investigation of the Construct Validity of the Resource Associates’ Big Five Construct of Emotional Stability in Relation to Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Career Satisfaction. Doctoral Dissertation that utilized the Resource Associates Personal Style Inventory, University of Tennessee, 2005.  ABSTRACT: Using five samples from selection test validation studies, this research evaluated the construct validity of Emotional Stability in relation to job performance, degree of stress in a job, and job and career satisfaction.  All five samples demonstrated a positive correlation between emotional stability and job performance and job / career satisfaction even when all other Big Five personality variables were held constant. It also found that individuals in high stress jobs had higher emotional stability scores.

Friday, A.S. (2004) Criterion-Related Validity of Big Five Adolescent Personality Traits

Friday, A.S.  “Criterion-Related Validity of Big Five Adolescent Personality Traits,”  Doctoral Dissertation that utilized the Resource Associates Personal Style Inventory, University of Tennessee, 2004. ABSTRACT: This dissertation examined the correlation of academic performance of adolescents and the Big Five personality traits, as well as gender and age differences one and two years later. The sample included 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students. Regression results revealed the Big Five traits accounted for 12%, 9%, and 8% of the variance in GPA at each grade level. Correlations between personality and GPA were not statistically different for 6th, 9th, and 12th grade males and females. Longitudinal data revealed that personality at Time 1 predicted GPA at Time 2 and Time 3. These findings further demonstrate the criterion-related validity of the Big Five in an academic setting that traditionally has focused on cognitive ability to predict academic success.

Landers, R. & Lounsbury, J. W. (2006) An investigation of Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to Internet usage

Landers, R. & Lounsbury, J. W. (2006) An investigation of Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to Internet usage. Computers and Human Behavior, 22, 283-293. ABSTRACT: This study revealed that total Internet usage was negatively related to three of the Big Five traits – Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion as well as two narrow traits – Optimism and Work Drive.  Results of a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that Work Drive added significantly to Extraversion and Conscientious in the prediction of total Internet usage.

Levy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J. W.(In Press). Big five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to matching arts satisfaction. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 40(3), 297-302.

Levy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J. W.(In Press). Big five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to matching arts satisfaction. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 40(3), 297-302. ABSTRACT: This study was based on 278 instrumentalists in six world-class drum and bugle corps and found that Big Five personality traits (primarily Extroversion, Emotional Stability) and performance anxiety accounted for 36% of total variance with satisfaction.

Levy, J.J., Richardson, J.D., Lounsbury, J.W., Stewart, D., Gibson, L.W., & Drost, A.W. (2011).Personality traits and career satisfaction of accounting professionals. Individual Differences Research Journal,9(4) 238-249.

Levy, J.J., Richardson, J.D., Lounsbury, J.W., Stewart, D., Gibson, L.W., & Drost, A.W. (2011).Personality traits and career satisfaction of accounting professionalsIndividual Differences Research Journal,9(4) 238-249. ABSTRACT: This used a sample of 684 accounting professionals to find significant relationships between the Big Five traits (Agreeableness/Teamwork, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness) and four narrow traits (Assertiveness, Customer-Service Orientation, Optimism, and Work Drive) and Career Satisfaction in that field. Compared to people in other careers, Accountants had significantly lower mean scores on Openness, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness/Teamwork, Extraversion, Assertiveness, Optimism, and Customer Service Orientation, yet they had a significantly higher mean score on Conscientiousness.

Levy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J.W. (2010, August). Personality and marching arts satisfaction. Poster presentation at the annual American Psychological Association Convention, San Diego, CA.

Levy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J.W. (2010, August). Personality and marching arts satisfaction. Poster presentation at the annual American Psychological Association Convention, San Diego, CA.

Levy, J.J., Lounsbury, J.W., & Kent, K.N. (2009). Big five personality traits and marching music injuries. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 24, 135-140.

Levy, J.J., Lounsbury, J.W., & Kent, K.N. (2009). Big five personality traits and marching music injuries. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 24, 135-140. ABSTRACT:  In a sample of world-class drum and bugle corps performers, this study investigated marching music-related injuries in relation to the Big Five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness). A linear combination of the Big Five traits accounted for 13% of the total variance in activity-related injuries.

Logue, C. T., Lounsbury, J. W. & Leong, F. T. L. (2007) Vocational interest themes and personality traits in relation to college major satisfaction, 33, 269-295. Journal of Career Development.

Logue, C. T., Lounsbury, J. W. & Leong, F. T. L. (2007) Vocational interest themes and personality traits in relation to college major satisfaction, 33, 269-295. Journal of Career Development. ABSTRACT: In a study of college business majors, personality traits of assertiveness, conscientiousness, extroversion, emotional stability, and optimism were positively related to major satisfaction, whereas three vocational interest themes (investigative, artistic, and realistic) were negatively related to major satisfaction.  Surprisingly, the enterprising theme showed no relationship to the criterion. A stepwise multiple regression demonstrated that 49% of the variance in business major satisfaction could be accounted for by a combination of vocational interest themes and personality traits.

Lounsbury, J.W., Foster, N., Carmody, P.C., Kim, J.Y., Gibson, L.W., & Drost, A.W. (2012). Key personality traits and career satisfaction of customer service workers. Managing Service Quality, 22(5), 517-536.

Lounsbury, J.W., Foster, N., Carmody, P.C., Kim, J.Y., Gibson, L.W., & Drost, A.W. (2012). Key personality traits and career satisfaction of customer service workers. Managing Service Quality, 22(5), 517-536. ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified key personality traits which distinguish customer service employees from other occupations. The sample included 2,641 customer service workers and 76,788 individuals in other occupations. We found that employees in customer service roles differed from other occupational groups by having higher levels of conscientiousness, customer service orientation, and lower tough-mindedness. Also, conscientiousness, customer service orientation, emotional stability, extraversion, and tough-mindedness were significantly, positively related to career satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J.W., Foster, N., Patel, H., Carmody, P., Gibson, L.W., & Stairs, D.R. (2011). An investigation of the personality traits of scientists versus nonscientists and their relationship with career satisfaction. R&D Management, 42(1), 47-59.

Lounsbury, J.W., Foster, N., Patel, H., Carmody, P., Gibson, L.W., & Stairs, D.R. (2011). An investigation of the personality traits of scientists versus nonscientists and their relationship with career satisfaction. R&D Management, 42(1), 47-59. ABSTRACT: The present study investigated personality traits of 2015 scientists  to compare them against people in other occupations. Scientists had significantly higher levels of openness, intrinsic motivation, and tough-mindedness, and significantly lower levels of assertiveness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, optimism, and visionary style than nonscientists. Plus, we found a relationship of seven personality traits of scientists (agreeableness/teamwork, assertiveness, emotional stability, extraversion, openness, optimism, and work drive) and their career satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. T., & Welsh, D. A. (2009) An investigation of character strengths in relation to life satisfaction and academic performance of college students. Individual Differences Research, 7(1), 52-69.

Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. T., & Welsh, D. A.  (2009)  An investigation of character strengths in relation to life satisfaction and academic performance of college students. Individual Differences Research, 7(1), 52-69.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. J., Gibson, L. W., & Smith, R. (2009). An investigation of the construct validity of the personality trait of self-directed learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 411-418.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. J., Gibson, L. W., & Smith, R. (2009). An investigation of the construct validity of the personality trait of self-directed learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 411-418. ABSTRACT: Based on samples of 398 middle school students, 568 high school students, and 1159 college students, self-directed learning was found to be related to cumulative grade-point-average at all levels as well as to Big Five personality traits (Openness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion), narrow personality traits (Optimism, Career-Decidedness, Work Drive, and Self-Actualization), vocational interests (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, and Conventional, as well as Science, Medicine, and Mathematics), cognitive aptitudes, and life as well as college satisfaction. A confirmatory factor analysis with 4000+ college students demonstrated the single factor structure of the 10-item measure of self-directed learning.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J., Gibson, L. W., & Smith, R. (2009). Big Five and narrow personality characteristics of business majors. Journal of Education for Business, 84(4), 200-204.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J., Gibson, L. W., & Smith, R. (2009). Big Five and narrow personality characteristics of business majors. Journal of Education for Business, 84(4), 200-204.

Lounsbury, J.W., Studham, R.S., Steel, R.P., Gibson, L.W., Drost, A.W. (2009) Personality Traits and Career Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals. In Dwivedi, Y.K., Lal, B., Williams, M.D., Schneberger, S.L., Wade, M (Eds.) Handbook of Research on Contemporary Theoretical Models in Information Systems, pp. 529-543. IGI Global Publisher.

Lounsbury, J.W., Studham, R.S., Steel, R.P., Gibson, L.W., Drost, A.W. (2009) Personality Traits and Career Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals.  In Dwivedi, Y.K., Lal, B., Williams, M.D., Schneberger, S.L., Wade, M  (Eds.)  Handbook of Research on Contemporary Theoretical Models in Information Systems, pp. 529-543.  IGI Global Publisher.

Lounsbury, J.W., Smith, R.M., Levy, J.J., Leong, F.T., & Gibson, L.W. (2009). Personality characteristics of business majors as defined by the Big Five and narrow personality traits.Journal of Education for Business, 84(4), 200-205.

Lounsbury, J.W., Smith, R.M., Levy, J.J., Leong, F.T., & Gibson, L.W. (2009). Personality characteristics of business majors as defined by the Big Five and narrow personality traits. Journal of Education for Business, 84(4), 200-205. ABSTRACT: Using data from 347 undergraduate business majors and 2,252 nonbusiness majors, the business majors scored higher for conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, assertiveness, and tough-mindedness, but they scored lower on agreeableness and openness. All of the traits except for agreeableness and tough-mindedness correlated significantly and positively with life satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J. W., Richardson, J. D., Saudargas, R. A., & Levy, J. J. (2008). An investigation of extracurricular activities in relation to sense of identity of college Freshmen. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 15(2), 47-55.

Lounsbury, J. W., Richardson, J. D., Saudargas, R. A., & Levy, J. J.  (2008). An investigation of extracurricular activities in relation to sense of identity of college Freshmen. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 15(2), 47-55.

Lounsbury, J. W., Steel, R. P., Gibson, L. W., & Drost, A. W. (2008). An investigation of personality traits and the career satisfaction of human resource professionals. Human Resource Development International, 11(4), 351-366.

Lounsbury, J. W., Steel, R. P., Gibson, L. W., & Drost, A. W. (2008).  An investigation of personality traits and the career satisfaction of  human resource professionals. Human Resource Development International, 11(4), 351-366. ABSTRACT: Using a sample of 1846 HR Managers, 1375 HR non-managers and 51,297 people in other occupations, this research study focuses on personality factors and career satisfactions of human resources (HR) managers compared to other occupations and to non-managers in the HR field.   HR managers had significantly lower scores for conscientiousness and task structuring managerial style but significantly higher scores on all of the other personality predictors. Higher visionary leadership and assertiveness scores were found for managers vs. non-managers. Career satisfaction was positively related to openness, emotional stability, optimism, work drive, and service orientation.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. T., Leong, F. T., L., & Gibson, L. W. (2007). Identity and personality: The Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to sense of identity. Identity, 7(1), 51-70.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. T., Leong, F. T., L., &   Gibson, L. W. (2007). Identity and personality: The Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to sense of identity. Identity, 7(1), 51-70. ABSTRACT: Based on a sample of 2000 college students, Sense of Identity was significantly related to Big Five personality traits (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extroversion, and Openness) as well as four narrow personality traits (Aggression, Optimism, Tough-Mindedness, and Work Drive), which taken together account for 50% of the variance in Sense of Identity.

Lounsbury, J. W., Moffitt, L., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W., & Stevenson, M. W. (2007). An investigation of personality traits in relation to the job and career satisfaction of information technology professionals. Journal of Information Technology. 22, 174–183.

Lounsbury,  J. W., Moffitt, L., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W., & Stevenson, M. W. (2007).  An investigation of personality traits in relation to the job and career satisfaction of information technology professionals. Journal of Information Technology. 22, 174–183. ABSTRACT: This study looked at personality traits in relation to job satisfaction and career satisfaction for 1059 information technology (IT) professionals. As hypothesized, eight traits were significantly related to both job and career satisfaction: Assertiveness, Emotional Resilience, Extraversion, Openness, Teamwork Disposition, Customer Service Orientation, Optimism, and Work Drive. Regression analyses indicated that sets of three and four traits accounted for 17 and 25%, respectively, of job and career satisfaction variance.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. T., Saudargas, R. A. (2006). Big Five personality traits and outcomes for first-year college students. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 14(1), 62-69.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. T., Saudargas, R. A. (2006). Big Five personality traits and outcomes for first-year college students. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 14(1), 62-69.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., & Saudargas, R. W. (2006). Scale development. F. T. L. Leong & J. T. Austin (Eds). Psychology Research Handbook: A Guide for Graduate Students and Research Assistants (Second Edition) (pp. 125-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference Publications.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., & Saudargas, R. W. (2006). Scale development.  F. T. L. Leong &  J. T.  Austin (Eds). Psychology Research Handbook: A Guide for Graduate Students and  Research Assistants (Second Edition) (pp. 125-146).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference Publications.

Lounsbury, J. W. (2006). Career satisfaction. In J. Greenhaus & G. A. Callanan (Eds.) Encyclopedia of career development. (142-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference Publications.

Lounsbury, J. W. (2006).  Career satisfaction.  In J. Greenhaus &  G. A. Callanan (Eds.) Encyclopedia of career development. (142-146). Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Reference Publications.

Lounsbury J. W., Saudargas, R. A., Gibson, L. W. & Leong, F. T. (2005). An investigation of broad and narrow personality traits in relation to general and domain-specific life satisfaction of college students. Research in Higher Education, 46(6), 707-729.

Lounsbury J. W., Saudargas, R. A., Gibson, L. W. & Leong, F. T. (2005). An investigation of broad and narrow personality traits in relation to general and domain-specific life satisfaction of college students. Research in Higher Education, 46(6), 707-729.

Lounsbury, J. W., Huffstetler, B. C., Leong, F. T., & Gibson, L. W. (2005). Sense of identity and collegiate academic achievement. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 501-514.

Lounsbury, J. W., Huffstetler,  B. C.,  Leong, F. T., & Gibson, L. W. (2005). Sense of identity and collegiate academic achievement. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 501-514.

Lounsbury, J. W., Hutchens, T., & Loveland, J. (2005). An investigation of Big Five personality traits and career decidedness among early and middle adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 25-39.

Lounsbury, J. W., Hutchens, T., & Loveland, J. (2005). An investigation of Big Five personality traits and career decidedness among early and middle adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 25-39.

Lounsbury, J. W., Welsh, D. P., Gibson, L. W., & Sundstrom, E. (2005). Broad and narrow personality traits in relation to cognitive ability in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1009-1019.

Lounsbury, J. W., Welsh, D. P., Gibson, L. W., & Sundstrom, E.  (2005). Broad and narrow personality traits in relation to cognitive ability in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1009-1019. ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationships between the broad Big Five traits and the narrow personality traits of Optimism and Work Drive in relation to academic performance  in a sample of 457 middle school and 375 high school students. All of the personality traits were significantly correlated with cognitive ability in both the middle and high school groups.

Lounsbury, J. W., Saudargas, R. A. & Gibson L. W. (2004) An investigation of Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to intention to withdraw from college. Journal of College Student Development, 45(5), 517-534.

Lounsbury, J. W., Saudargas, R. A. & Gibson L. W. (2004) An investigation of Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to intention to withdraw from college. Journal of College Student Development, 45(5), 517-534. ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigate Big Five traits (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness), plus seven narrow personality traits  (Aggression, Career-Decidedness, Optimism, Self-Directed Learning, Sense of Identity, Tough-Mindedness, and Work Drive) in relation to intention to withdraw from college. Among 233 university freshmen, all of the traits except Tough-Mindedness and Openness were significantly related to withdrawal intention, with three traits—Sense of Identity, Emotional Stability, and Work Drive—accounting for 22% of the variance in intention to withdraw.

Lounsbury, J. W., Steel, R. P., Loveland, J. M. & Gibson, L. W. (2004) An investigation of personality traits in relation to adolescent school absenteeism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(5), 457-466.

Lounsbury, J. W., Steel, R. P., Loveland, J. M. & Gibson, L. W. (2004) An investigation of personality traits in relation to adolescent school absenteeism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(5), 457-466.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., & Hamrick, F. L. (2004). The development of a personological measure of work drive. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(4), 347-371.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., & Hamrick, F. L. (2004). The development of a personological measure of work drive. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(4), 347-371.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., Steel, R. P., Sundstrom, E. D. & Loveland, J. L. (2004). An Investigation of intelligence and personality in relation to career satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(1), 181-189.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., Steel, R. P., Sundstrom, E. D. & Loveland, J. L. (2004). An Investigation of intelligence and personality in relation to career satisfaction.  Personality and Individual Differences, 37(1), 181-189. ABSTRACT: A conceptual model proposing paths from personality traits to career satisfaction and life satisfaction and from career satisfaction to life satisfaction was evaluated in a field study by structural equations modeling using LISREL 8. Participants were a convenience sample of 1,352 information science professionals. An exploratory maximum likelihood common factor analysis revealed two oblique personality factors, the first comprised of extraversion, optimism, assertiveness, openness, and emotional stability and the second consisting of conscientiousness and tough-mindedness. Results indicated a good fit for a two-factor personality model showing significant links between both personality factors and career satisfaction, between the second personality factor and life satisfaction, and between career and life satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J. W., Park, S. H., Sundstrom, E., Williamson, J., & Pemberton, A. (2004) Personality, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction: Test of a directional model. Journal of Career Assessment, 12, 395-406.

Lounsbury, J. W., Park, S. H., Sundstrom, E., Williamson, J., & Pemberton, A. (2004) Personality, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction: Test of a directional model. Journal of Career Assessment, 12, 395-406.

Lounsbury, J.W., Gibson, L.W., Sundstrom, E., Wilburn, D., & Loveland, J.M. (2004). An empirical investigation of the proposition that “School is Work”: A comparison of personality performance correlations in school and work settings. Journal of Education and Work, 17(1), 119-131.

Lounsbury, J.W., Gibson, L.W., Sundstrom, E., Wilburn, D., & Loveland, J.M. (2004). An empirical investigation of the proposition that “School is Work”: A comparison of personality performance correlations in school and work settings. Journal of Education and Work, 17(1), 119-131. ABSTRACT: This article describes an empirical test of Munson and Rubenstein’s (1992) assertion that ‘school is work’ in which a sample of students in a high school is compared with a sample of workers in a manufacturing plant in the same metropolitan area. Data from both samples included scores on six personality traits–Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness, Emotional Stability, Optimism, and Work Drive and cumulative grade point average (GPA) for students and supervisors’ performance ratings for employees. In both samples, all of these personality traits showed significant correlations with respective measures of performance.

Lounsbury, J. W., Loveland, J. L. & Gibson, L. W. (2003). An investigation of Big Five personality traits in relation to psychological sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(5), 531-541.

Lounsbury, J. W., Loveland, J. L. & Gibson, L. W. (2003). An investigation of Big Five personality traits in relation to psychological sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology,  31(5), 531-541. ABSTRACT: This study investigated the personality traits linked to psychological sense of community and absences using high school and college-age students. Sense of community was significantly related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism in both samples and to Openness and Absences in the high school sample. Neuroticism was related to absences.

Lounsbury, J. W., Loveland, J. M., Sundstrom, E., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W., & Hamrick, F. (2003). An investigation of personality traits in relation to career satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(3), 287-307.

Lounsbury, J. W., Loveland, J. M., Sundstrom, E., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W., & Hamrick, F. (2003). An investigation of personality traits in relation to career satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(3), 287-307.

Lounsbury, J. W., Sundstrom, E., Loveland, J. M. & Gibson, L. W. (2003) Intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive as predictors of course grade. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1231-1239.

Lounsbury, J. W., Sundstrom, E., Loveland, J. M. & Gibson, L. W.  (2003) Intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive as predictors of course grade.  Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1231-1239. ABSTRACT:  General intelligence, Big Five personality constructs, and a measure of work drive were studied in relation to course grade in an undergraduate psychology course for 175 students over a 5 yr period. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, IQ accounted for 16% of the variance in course grade; Big Five personality measures accounted for an additional 7%, and a work drive measure accounted for 4% more. However, when Work Drive was entered before the Big Five measures, the Big Five variables did not add significant variance.

Lounsbury, J. W., Sundstrom, E., Gibson, L. W., & Loveland, J. L. (2003). Broad versus narrow personality traits in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 65-75.

Lounsbury, J. W.,  Sundstrom, E., Gibson, L. W., & Loveland, J. L. (2003). Broad versus narrow personality traits in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 65-75.

Lounsbury, J. W., Tatum, H., Gibson, L. W., Park, S. H., Sundstrom, E. D., Hamrick, F. L., & Wilburn, D. (2003). The development of a Big Five adolescent personality scale. Psychoeducational Assessment, 21, 111-133.

Lounsbury, J. W., Tatum, H., Gibson, L. W., Park, S. H., Sundstrom, E. D., Hamrick, F. L., & Wilburn, D. (2003). The development of a Big Five adolescent personality scale. Psychoeducational Assessment, 21, 111-133.

Lounsbury, J.W., Sundstrom, E., Loveland, J.L., & Gibson, L.W. (2002) Broad versus narrow personality traits in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 65-75.

Lounsbury, J.W., Sundstrom, E., Loveland, J.L., & Gibson, L.W. (2002) Broad versus narrow personality traits in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 65-75. ABSTRACT: This study used a sample of 220 seventh graders and 290 tenth graders to investigate grade point average and personality traits: Big Five traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness), plus four narrow traits  (aggression, optimism, tough-mindedness, and work drive). All traits correlated significantly (P<.01) with GPA among both 7th- and 10th-graders. The Big Five traits together accounted for 15% and 10% of variance in GPA among 7th and 10th graders, respectively which is clear evidence of a relationship between personality and academic success among adolescents.

Lounsbury, J.W., Tatum, H.E., Chambers, W., Owens, K.S., & Gibson, L.W. (1999). An investigation of career decidedness in relation to “Big Five” personality constructs and life satisfaction. College Student Journal, 33(4).

Lounsbury, J.W., Tatum, H.E., Chambers, W., Owens, K.S., & Gibson, L.W. (1999). An investigation of career decidedness in relation to “Big Five” personality constructs and life satisfaction. College Student Journal,  33(4). ABSTRACT: This study examined career-decidedness in relation to the Big Five personality constructs, and found that career decidedness was negatively correlated with the neuroticism  and positively correlated with agreeableness  and conscientiousness. In addition, career-decidedness was positively and significantly correlated with life satisfaction.

Loveland, J., Griffith-Ross, D. A., Walczyk, J. J., Lounsbury, J. W., & Columbus, A. (2008). The perils and rewards of item-specific processing: An investigation using bizarreness, hypermnesia, and enactment. Advances in Psychology Research (Vol. 53), 197-207. Hauppauge, NY, US: Nova Science Publishers.

Loveland, J., Griffith-Ross, D. A., Walczyk, J. J., Lounsbury, J. W., & Columbus, A.  (2008). The perils and rewards of item-specific processing: An investigation using bizarreness, hypermnesia, and enactment. Advances in Psychology Research (Vol. 53), 197-207. Hauppauge, NY, US: Nova Science Publishers.

Loveland, J. M., Lounsbury, J. W., & Welsh, D. P. (2007) The validity of trait aggression in predicting adolescent academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 167-176.

Loveland, J. M., Lounsbury, J. W., & Welsh, D. P.  (2007) The validity of trait aggression in predicting adolescent academic performance.  British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 167-176. ABSTRACT: Results of this study of high school students indicated that physical aggression accounts for 16% of variance in GPA and it adds 7% to the prediction of GPA beyond the Big Five. The Big Five traits added only 1.5% to the prediction of GPA after controlling for physical aggression. Interestingly, a significantly larger amount of variance in GPA was predicted by physical aggression for females than for males.

Loveland, J. M., Gibson, L. W., Lounsbury, J. W., & Huffstetler, B. C. (2005). Broad and narrow personality traits in relation to the job performance of camp counselors. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34(3) 241-255.

Loveland, J. M., Gibson, L. W., Lounsbury, J. W., & Huffstetler, B. C. (2005). Broad and narrow personality traits in relation to the job performance of camp counselors. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34(3) 241-255. ABSTRACT: We examined personality traits important for the job performance of summer camp counselors, including Big Five and narrow personality traits. Performance was based on two composite scales: social performance and task performance. The personality traits of work drive, extraversion, nurturance, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly related to the social performance measure, and the traits of customer service orientation, work drive, extraversion, nurturance, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significantly related to the Task Performance measure. Results of a stepwise regression indicate that agreeableness and extraversion were the best predictors for the social performance measure, while work drive was the best predictor for task performance.

Pemberton, A. E., Pemberton, J. M., Williamson, J. M., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2005). RIM professionals: A distinct personality? Information Management Journal, 39(5), 54-60.

Pemberton, A. E., Pemberton, J. M., Williamson, J. M., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2005). RIM professionals: A distinct personality? Information Management Journal, 39(5), 54-60. ABSTRACT: This article looks at personality traits among people in the records management  and library sciences field, and defines personality traits of Records & Information  Management professionals as distinct from catalogers and reference librarians, i.e., they are more adaptable, assertive, emotionally stable, conscientious, customer-oriented, outgoing, open, enthusiastic, team-oriented, tough-minded, and visionary in their outlook.

Richardson, J. R. , Lounsbury, J. W., Bhaskar, T., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W. (2009). Personality traits and career satisfaction of healthcare professionals. Health Care Manager, 28(3), 218-226.

Richardson, J. R. , Lounsbury, J. W., Bhaskar, T., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W.  (2009). Personality traits and career satisfaction of healthcare professionals.  Health Care Manager, 28(3), 218-226. ABSTRACT: This study examined personality traits that characterize health care workers compared to people in other occupations, and how those personality traits relate to career satisfaction of health care professionals. Two traits that were particularly strong among health care workers were also significantly correlated with career satisfaction: work drive and conscientiousness. Other traits were found to be significantly related to career satisfaction in health care but were not uniquely high in the sample of health care professionals.

Based on Holland’s theorizing that vocational satisfaction arises from a good match between one’s personality and career choice, one purpose of the study was to examine broad and narrow personality traits that characterize health care workers in comparison with professionals from other occupations. Also investigated were ways in which characteristic traits of health care workers were related to career satisfaction. Two traits that were particularly strong among health care workers were also significantly correlated with career satisfaction: work drive and conscientiousness. Other traits were found to be significantly related to career satisfaction in health care but were not uniquely high in the sample of health care professionals.

Ridgell, S. & Lounsbury, J. W. (2004), Predicting collegiate academic success: General intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive. College Student Journal, 38, 607-618.

Ridgell, S. & Lounsbury, J. W. (2004), Predicting collegiate academic success: General intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive. College Student Journal, 38, 607-618.

Stanonik, M. D. L, Licata, C. A., Walton, N. C., Lounsbury, J. W., Hutson, R. K., and Dougherty, J. H. (2005). The Self Test: a screening tool for dementia requiring minimal supervision. International Psychogeriatrics, 17(4), 669-678.

Stanonik, M. D. L, Licata, C. A., Walton, N. C., Lounsbury, J. W., Hutson, R. K., and Dougherty, J. H. (2005). The Self Test: a screening tool for dementia requiring minimal supervision. International Psychogeriatrics, 17(4), 669-678.

Steel, R. P . & Lounsbury, J. W. (2009). Turnover process models: Review and synthesis of a conceptual literature. Human Resource Management Review, 19(4), 271-282.

Steel, R. P . & Lounsbury,  J. W. (2009). Turnover process models:  Review and synthesis of a conceptual literature.  Human Resource Management Review, 19(4), 271-282. ABSTRACT: Turnover process models have been appearing in the organizational literature since the 1950s. Consensus analysis revealed a high level of cross-model agreement on the importance of three standard turnover-theory components (i.e., employee morale, labor-market mechanisms, intentions to quit/stay).

Taylor, S. E., Scepansky, J. A., & Lounsbury, J W., & Gibson, L. W. (2009). Broad and narrow personality traits of women’s college students. Journal of College Student Retention, 11(4), 483-497.

Taylor, S. E., Scepansky, J. A., & Lounsbury, J W., & Gibson, L. W. (2009). Broad and narrow personality traits of women’s college students. Journal of College Student Retention, 11(4), 483-497.

Tichon, M. (2005) “Personnel Selection in the Transportation Sector: An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to the Job Performance of Delivery Drivers.” Doctoral, University of Tennessee.

Tichon, M. (2005)  Personnel Selection in the Transportation Sector:  An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to the Job Performance of Delivery Drivers.”  Doctoral, University of Tennessee. ABSTRACT: This criterion-based concurrent validation study was performed on a customized version of the Resource Associates’ Personal Style Inventory, a work-based personality measurement system based on the Five Factor model of personality and several narrow traits. Relationships between both broad and narrow bandwidth personality dimensions and important job performance criterion measures were examined. Four traits were found to be correlated with Overall Performance Rating of delivery drivers: Agreeableness, Comfort with Procedures, Attention to Detail, and Preference for Long Tenure. A stepwise regression method revealed that Comfort with Procedures was the best predictor of overall performance, accounting for 17% of the variance in the regression model.

Williamson, J.W., Lounsbury, J.W. (In Press) Key personality traits of engineers for innovation and technology development. Journal of Engineering Technology and Management.

Williamson, J.W., Lounsbury, J.W. (In Press) Key personality traits of engineers for innovation and technology development. Journal of Engineering Technology and Management.

Williamson, J. W., Pemberton, A. E., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2008). Personality traits of individuals in different specialties of librarianship. Journal of Documentation, 64(2), 273-286.

Williamson, J. W., Pemberton, A. E., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2008). Personality traits of individuals in different specialties of librarianship. Journal of Documentation, 64(2), 273-286. ABSTRACT:  This study looked at the relationship of personality characteristics, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction of 1,300+ information professionals (academic reference librarians, archivists, catalogers, distance education librarians, public librarians, records managers, school media specialists, special librarians, systems librarians, and other information professionals). Using cluster analysis, the results study clearly demonstrate that different librarianship subspecialties can be differentiated by broad and narrow personality traits.

Williamson, J. W., Pemberton, A. E., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2006). An investigation of career and job satisfaction in relation to personality traits of information professionals. Library Quarterly, 75(2), 122-141.

Williamson, J. W., Pemberton, A. E., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2006). An investigation of career and job satisfaction in relation to personality traits of information professionals. Library Quarterly, 75(2), 122-141.

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