Resource Associates counts among its staff and consultants highly-qualified professionals in psychology, industrial & organizational psychology, human resources, and psychometric  analysis. Together, this team provides the clients of RA with industry-leading expertise in the creation and application of pre-employment personality testing and aptitude testing.

Research forms the basis of the comprehensive pre-employment tests we sell. Our work is reflective of the highest standards of the profession — our research is submitted and accepted for articles in peer-reviewed and scholarly journals.

The measures of the tests you purchase are the basis for these scientific articles. Bear in mind, most scholarly journals have a tremendous rejection rate — only the best research (which can take years to finish) makes it to publication. We’re pleased to note our staff at RA have a significant volume of published works.

And since our research is subject to a rigorous critique process within the scientific community, you can be assured the tests we have created based on our research are unquestionably valid and accurate.

Following is a selection of scholarly works produced by staff and consultants of Resource Associates for your review.

_____

Barthelemy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J.W. (2009). The relationship between aggression and the big five personality factors in predicting academic success. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 159-170.  ABSTRACT: This study of high school students showed that Big Five personality traits are positively related to academic success, but when Aggression was added to the regression model, three variables were significantly correlated to grades: Conscientiousness, Openness, and Aggression.

Cook, V.D. (2005)  An Investigation of the Construct Validity of the Resource Associates’ Big Five Construct of Emotional Stability in Relation to Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Career Satisfaction. Doctoral Dissertation that utilized the Resource Associates Personal Style Inventory, University of Tennessee, 2005.  ABSTRACT: Using five samples from selection test validation studies, this research evaluated the construct validity of Emotional Stability in relation to job performance, degree of stress in a job, and job and career satisfaction.  All five samples demonstrated a positive correlation between emotional stability and job performance and job / career satisfaction even when all other Big Five personality variables were held constant. It also found that individuals in high stress jobs had higher emotional stability scores.

Friday, A.S.  “Criterion-Related Validity of Big Five Adolescent Personality Traits,”  Doctoral Dissertation that utilized the Resource Associates Personal Style Inventory, University of Tennessee, 2004. ABSTRACT: This dissertation examined the correlation of academic performance of adolescents and the Big Five personality traits, as well as gender and age differences one and two years later. The sample included 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students. Regression results revealed the Big Five traits accounted for 12%, 9%, and 8% of the variance in GPA at each grade level. Correlations between personality and GPA were not statistically different for 6th, 9th, and 12th grade males and females. Longitudinal data revealed that personality at Time 1 predicted GPA at Time 2 and Time 3. These findings further demonstrate the criterion-related validity of the Big Five in an academic setting that traditionally has focused on cognitive ability to predict academic success.

Landers, R. & Lounsbury, J. W. (2006) An investigation of Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to Internet usage. Computers and Human Behavior, 22, 283-293. ABSTRACT: This study revealed that total Internet usage was negatively related to three of the Big Five traits – Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion as well as two narrow traits – Optimism and Work Drive.  Results of a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that Work Drive added significantly to Extraversion and Conscientious in the prediction of total Internet usage.

Levy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J. W.(In Press). Big five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to matching arts satisfaction.  WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 40(3), 297-302. ABSTRACT: This study was based on 278 instrumentalists in six world-class drum and bugle corps and found that Big Five personality traits (primarily Extroversion, Emotional Stability) and performance anxiety accounted for 36% of total variance with satisfaction.

Levy, J.J., Richardson, J.D., Lounsbury, J.W., Stewart, D., Gibson, L.W., & Drost, A.W. (2011).Personality traits and career satisfaction of accounting professionals. Individual Differences Research Journal,9(4) 238-249. ABSTRACT: This used a sample of 684 accounting professionals to find significant relationships between the Big Five traits (Agreeableness/Teamwork, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness) and four narrow traits (Assertiveness, Customer-Service Orientation, Optimism, and Work Drive) and Career Satisfaction in that field. Compared to people in other careers, Accountants had significantly lower mean scores on Openness, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness/Teamwork, Extraversion, Assertiveness, Optimism, and Customer Service Orientation, yet they had a significantly higher mean score on Conscientiousness.

Levy, J.J. & Lounsbury, J.W. (2010, August). Personality and marching arts satisfaction. Poster presentation at the annual American Psychological Association Convention, San Diego, CA.

Levy, J.J., Lounsbury, J.W., & Kent, K.N. (2009). Big five personality traits and marching music injuries. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 24, 135-140. ABSTRACT:  In a sample of world-class drum and bugle corps performers, this study investigated marching music-related injuries in relation to the Big Five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness). A linear combination of the Big Five traits accounted for 13% of the total variance in activity-related injuries.

Logue, C. T., Lounsbury, J. W. & Leong, F. T. L. (2007) Vocational interest themes and personality traits in relation to college major satisfaction, 33, 269-295. Journal of Career Development.ABSTRACT: In a study of college business majors, personality traits of assertiveness, conscientiousness, extroversion, emotional stability, and optimism were positively related to major satisfaction, whereas three vocational interest themes (investigative, artistic, and realistic) were negatively related to major satisfaction.  Surprisingly, the enterprising theme showed no relationship to the criterion. A stepwise multiple regression demonstrated that 49% of the variance in business major satisfaction could be accounted for by a combination of vocational interest themes and personality traits.

Lounsbury, J.W., Foster, N., Carmody, P.C., Kim, J.Y., Gibson, L.W., & Drost, A.W. (2012). Key personality traits and career satisfaction of customer service workers. Managing Service Quality,22(5), 517-536. ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified key personality traits which distinguish customer service employees from other occupations. The sample included 2,641 customer service workers and 76,788 individuals in other occupations. We found that employees in customer service roles differed from other occupational groups by having higher levels of conscientiousness, customer service orientation, and lower tough-mindedness. Also, conscientiousness, customer service orientation, emotional stability, extraversion, and tough-mindedness were significantly, positively related to career satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J.W., Foster, N., Patel, H., Carmody, P., Gibson, L.W., & Stairs, D.R. (2011). An investigation of the personality traits of scientists versus nonscientists and their relationship with career satisfaction. R&D Management, 42(1), 47-59. ABSTRACT: The present study investigated personality traits of 2015 scientists  to compare them against people in other occupations. Scientists had significantly higher levels of openness, intrinsic motivation, and tough-mindedness, and significantly lower levels of assertiveness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, optimism, and visionary style than nonscientists. Plus, we found a relationship of seven personality traits of scientists (agreeableness/teamwork, assertiveness, emotional stability, extraversion, openness, optimism, and work drive) and their career satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. T., & Welsh, D. A.  (2009)  An investigation of character strengths in relation to life satisfaction and academic performance of college students. Individual Differences Research, 7(1), 52-69.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. J., Gibson, L. W., & Smith, R. (2009). An investigation of the construct validity of the personality trait of self-directed learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 411-418. ABSTRACT: Based on samples of 398 middle school students, 568 high school students, and 1159 college students, self-directed learning was found to be related to cumulative grade-point-average at all levels as well as to Big Five personality traits (Openness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion), narrow personality traits (Optimism, Career-Decidedness, Work Drive, and Self-Actualization), vocational interests (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, and Conventional, as well as Science, Medicine, and Mathematics), cognitive aptitudes, and life as well as college satisfaction. A confirmatory factor analysis with 4000+ college students demonstrated the single factor structure of the 10-item measure of self-directed learning.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J., Gibson, L. W., & Smith, R. (2009). Big Five and narrow personality characteristics of business majors. Journal of Education for Business, 84(4), 200-204.

Lounsbury, J.W., Studham, R.S., Steel, R.P., Gibson, L.W., Drost, A.W. (2009) Personality Traits and Career Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals.  In Dwivedi, Y.K., Lal, B., Williams, M.D., Schneberger, S.L., Wade, M  (Eds.)  Handbook of Research on Contemporary Theoretical Models in Information Systems, pp. 529-543.  IGI Global Publisher.

Lounsbury, J.W., Smith, R.M., Levy, J.J., Leong, F.T., & Gibson, L.W. (2009). Personality characteristics of business majors as defined by the Big Five and narrow personality traits.Journal of Education for Business, 84(4), 200-205. ABSTRACT: Using data from 347 undergraduate business majors and 2,252 nonbusiness majors, the business majors scored higher for conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, assertiveness, and tough-mindedness, but they scored lower on agreeableness and openness. All of the traits except for agreeableness and tough-mindedness correlated significantly and positively with life satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J. W., Richardson, J. D., Saudargas, R. A., & Levy, J. J.  (2008). An investigation of extracurricular activities in relation to sense of identity of college Freshmen. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 15(2), 47-55.

Lounsbury, J. W., Steel, R. P., Gibson, L. W., & Drost, A. W. (2008).  An investigation of personality traits and the career satisfaction of  human resource professionals. Human Resource Development International, 11(4), 351-366. ABSTRACT: Using a sample of 1846 HR Managers, 1375 HR non-managers and 51,297 people in other occupations, this research study focuses on personality factors and career satisfactions of human resources (HR) managers compared to other occupations and to non-managers in the HR field.   HR managers had significantly lower scores for conscientiousness and task structuring managerial style but significantly higher scores on all of the other personality predictors. Higher visionary leadership and assertiveness scores were found for managers vs. non-managers. Career satisfaction was positively related to openness, emotional stability, optimism, work drive, and service orientation.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. T., Leong, F. T., L., &   Gibson, L. W. (2007). Identity and personality: The Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to sense of identity.  Identity, 7(1), 51-70.ABSTRACT: Based on a sample of 2000 college students, Sense of Identity was significantly related to Big Five personality traits (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extroversion, and Openness) as well as four narrow personality traits (Aggression, Optimism, Tough-Mindedness, and Work Drive), which taken together account for 50% of the variance in Sense of Identity.

Lounsbury,  J. W., Moffitt, L., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W., & Stevenson, M. W. (2007).  An investigation of personality traits in relation to the job and career satisfaction of information technology professionals. Journal of Information Technology. 22, 174–183. ABSTRACT: This study looked at personality traits in relation to job satisfaction and career satisfaction for 1059 information technology (IT) professionals. As hypothesized, eight traits were significantly related to both job and career satisfaction: Assertiveness, Emotional Resilience, Extraversion, Openness, Teamwork Disposition, Customer Service Orientation, Optimism, and Work Drive. Regression analyses indicated that sets of three and four traits accounted for 17 and 25%, respectively, of job and career satisfaction variance.

Lounsbury, J. W., Levy, J. T., Saudargas, R. A. (2006). Big Five personality traits and outcomes for first-year college students. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 14(1), 62-69.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., & Saudargas, R. W. (2006). Scale development.  F. T. L. Leong &  J. T.  Austin (Eds). Psychology Research Handbook: A Guide for Graduate Students and  Research Assistants (Second Edition) (pp. 125-146).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference Publications.

Lounsbury, J. W. (2006).  Career satisfaction.  In J. Greenhaus &  G. A. Callanan (Eds.) Encyclopedia of career development. (142-146). Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Reference Publications.

Lounsbury J. W., Saudargas, R. A., Gibson, L. W. & Leong, F. T. (2005). An investigation of broad and narrow personality traits in relation to general and domain-specific life satisfaction of college students. Research in Higher Education, 46(6), 707-729.

Lounsbury, J. W., Huffstetler,  B. C.,  Leong, F. T., & Gibson, L. W. (2005). Sense of identity and collegiate academic achievement. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 501-514.

Lounsbury, J. W., Hutchens, T., & Loveland, J. (2005). An investigation of Big Five personality traits and career decidedness among early and middle adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 25-39.

Lounsbury, J. W., Welsh, D. P., Gibson, L. W., & Sundstrom, E.  (2005). Broad and narrow personality traits in relation to cognitive ability in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1009-1019. ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationships between the broad Big Five traits and the narrow personality traits of Optimism and Work Drive in relation to academic performance  in a sample of 457 middle school and 375 high school students. All of the personality traits were significantly correlated with cognitive ability in both the middle and high school groups.

Lounsbury, J. W., Saudargas, R. A. & Gibson L. W. (2004) An investigation of Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to intention to withdraw from college. Journal of College Student Development, 45(5), 517-534. ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigate Big Five traits (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness), plus seven narrow personality traits  (Aggression, Career-Decidedness, Optimism, Self-Directed Learning, Sense of Identity, Tough-Mindedness, and Work Drive) in relation to intention to withdraw from college. Among 233 university freshmen, all of the traits except Tough-Mindedness and Openness were significantly related to withdrawal intention, with three traits—Sense of Identity, Emotional Stability, and Work Drive—accounting for 22% of the variance in intention to withdraw.

Lounsbury, J. W., Steel, R. P., Loveland, J. M. & Gibson, L. W. (2004) An investigation of personality traits in relation to adolescent school absenteeism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(5), 457-466.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., & Hamrick, F. L. (2004). The development of a personological measure of work drive. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(4), 347-371.

Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., Steel, R. P., Sundstrom, E. D. & Loveland, J. L. (2004). An Investigation of intelligence and personality in relation to career satisfaction.  Personality and Individual Differences, 37(1), 181-189. ABSTRACT: A conceptual model proposing paths from personality traits to career satisfaction and life satisfaction and from career satisfaction to life satisfaction was evaluated in a field study by structural equations modeling using LISREL 8. Participants were a convenience sample of 1,352 information science professionals. An exploratory maximum likelihood common factor analysis revealed two oblique personality factors, the first comprised of extraversion, optimism, assertiveness, openness, and emotional stability and the second consisting of conscientiousness and tough-mindedness. Results indicated a good fit for a two-factor personality model showing significant links between both personality factors and career satisfaction, between the second personality factor and life satisfaction, and between career and life satisfaction.

Lounsbury, J. W., Park, S. H., Sundstrom, E., Williamson, J., & Pemberton, A. (2004) Personality, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction: Test of a directional model. Journal of Career Assessment, 12, 395-406.

Lounsbury, J.W., Gibson, L.W., Sundstrom, E., Wilburn, D., & Loveland, J.M. (2004). An empirical investigation of the proposition that “School is Work”: A comparison of personality performance correlations in school and work settings. Journal of Education and Work, 17(1), 119-131. ABSTRACT: This article describes an empirical test of Munson and Rubenstein’s (1992) assertion that ‘school is work’ in which a sample of students in a high school is compared with a sample of workers in a manufacturing plant in the same metropolitan area. Data from both samples included scores on six personality traits–Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness, Emotional Stability, Optimism, and Work Drive and cumulative grade point average (GPA) for students and supervisors’ performance ratings for employees.  In both samples, all of these personality traits showed significant correlations with respective measures of performance.

Lounsbury, J. W., Loveland, J. L. & Gibson, L. W. (2003). An investigation of Big Five personality traits in relation to psychological sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology,  31(5), 531-541. ABSTRACT: This study investigated the personality traits linked to psychological sense of community and absences using high school and college-age students. Sense of community was significantly related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism in both samples and to Openness and Absences in the high school sample. Neuroticism was related to absences.

Lounsbury, J. W., Loveland, J. M., Sundstrom, E., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W., & Hamrick, F. (2003). An investigation of personality traits in relation to career satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(3), 287-307.

Lounsbury, J. W., Sundstrom, E., Loveland, J. M. & Gibson, L. W.  (2003) Intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive as predictors of course grade.  Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1231-1239. ABSTRACT:  General intelligence, Big Five personality constructs, and a measure of work drive were studied in relation to course grade in an undergraduate psychology course for 175 students over a 5 yr period. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, IQ accounted for 16% of the variance in course grade; Big Five personality measures accounted for an additional 7%, and a work drive measure accounted for 4% more. However, when Work Drive was entered before the Big Five measures, the Big Five variables did not add significant variance.

Lounsbury, J. W.,  Sundstrom, E., Gibson, L. W., & Loveland, J. L. (2003). Broad versus narrow personality traits in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 65-75.

Lounsbury, J. W., Tatum, H., Gibson, L. W., Park, S. H., Sundstrom, E. D., Hamrick, F. L., & Wilburn, D. (2003). The development of a Big Five adolescent personality scale. Psychoeducational Assessment, 21, 111-133.

Lounsbury, J.W., Sundstrom, E., Loveland, J.L., & Gibson, L.W. (2002) Broad versus narrow personality traits in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 65-75. ABSTRACT: This study used a sample of 220 seventh graders and 290 tenth graders to investigate grade point average and personality traits: Big Five traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness), plus four narrow traits  (aggression, optimism, tough-mindedness, and work drive). All traits correlated significantly (P<.01) with GPA among both 7th- and 10th-graders. The Big Five traits together accounted for 15% and 10% of variance in GPA among 7th and 10th graders, respectively which is clear evidence of a relationship between personality and academic success among adolescents.

Lounsbury, J.W., Tatum, H.E., Chambers, W., Owens, K.S., & Gibson, L.W. (1999). An investigation of career decidedness in relation to “Big Five” personality constructs and life satisfaction.College Student Journal,  33(4). ABSTRACT: This study examined career-decidedness in relation to the Big Five personality constructs, and found that career decidedness was negatively correlated with the neuroticism  and positively correlated with agreeableness  and conscientiousness. In addition, career-decidedness was positively and significantly correlated with life satisfaction.

Loveland, J., Griffith-Ross, D. A., Walczyk, J. J., Lounsbury, J. W., & Columbus, A.  (2008). The perils and rewards of item-specific processing: An investigation using bizarreness, hypermnesia, and enactment. Advances in Psychology Research (Vol. 53), 197-207. Hauppauge, NY, US: Nova Science Publishers.

Loveland, J. M., Lounsbury, J. W., & Welsh, D. P.  (2007) The validity of trait aggression in predicting adolescent academic performance.  British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 167-176. ABSTRACT:  Results of this study of high school students indicated that physical aggression accounts for 16% of variance in GPA and it adds 7% to the prediction of GPA beyond the Big Five. The Big Five traits added only 1.5% to the prediction of GPA after controlling for physical aggression. Interestingly, a significantly larger amount of variance in GPA was predicted by physical aggression for females than for males.

Loveland, J. M., Gibson, L. W., Lounsbury, J. W., & Huffstetler, B. C. (2005). Broad and narrow personality traits in relation to the job performance of camp counselors. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34(3) 241-255. ABSTRACT: We examined personality traits important for the job performance of summer camp counselors, including Big Five and narrow personality traits. Performance was based on two composite scales: social performance and task performance. The personality traits of work drive, extraversion, nurturance, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly related to the social performance measure, and the traits of customer service orientation, work drive, extraversion, nurturance, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significantly related to the Task Performance measure. Results of a stepwise regression indicate that agreeableness and extraversion were the best predictors for the social performance measure, while work drive was the best predictor for task performance.

Pemberton, A. E., Pemberton, J. M., Williamson, J. M., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2005). RIM professionals: A distinct personality? Information Management Journal, 39(5), 54-60. ABSTRACT: This article looks at personality traits among people in the records management  and library sciences field, and defines personality traits of Records & Information  Management professionals as distinct from catalogers and reference librarians, i.e., they are more adaptable, assertive, emotionally stable, conscientious, customer-oriented, outgoing, open, enthusiastic, team-oriented, tough-minded, and visionary in their outlook.

Richardson, J. R. , Lounsbury, J. W., Bhaskar, T., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W.  (2009). Personality traits and career satisfaction of healthcare professionals.  Health Care Manager, 28(3), 218-226.ABSTRACT: This study examined personality traits that characterize health care workers compared to people in other occupations, and how those personality traits relate to career satisfaction of health care professionals. Two traits that were particularly strong among health care workers were also significantly correlated with career satisfaction: work drive and conscientiousness. Other traits were found to be significantly related to career satisfaction in health care but were not uniquely high in the sample of health care professionals.

Based on Holland’s theorizing that vocational satisfaction arises from a good match between one’s personality and career choice, one purpose of the study was to examine broad and narrow personality traits that characterize health care workers in comparison with professionals from other occupations. Also investigated were ways in which characteristic traits of health care workers were related to career satisfaction. Two traits that were particularly strong among health care workers were also significantly correlated with career satisfaction: work drive and conscientiousness. Other traits were found to be significantly related to career satisfaction in health care but were not uniquely high in the sample of health care professionals.

Ridgell, S. & Lounsbury, J. W. (2004), Predicting collegiate academic success: General intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive. College Student Journal, 38, 607-618.

Stanonik, M. D. L, Licata, C. A., Walton, N. C., Lounsbury, J. W., Hutson, R. K., and Dougherty, J. H. (2005). The Self Test: a screening tool for dementia requiring minimal supervision. International Psychogeriatrics, 17(4), 669-678.

Steel, R. P . & Lounsbury,  J. W.    (2009). Turnover process models:  Review and synthesis of a conceptual literature.  Human Resource Management Review, 19(4), 271-282. ABSTRACT: Turnover process models have been appearing in the organizational literature since the 1950s. Consensus analysis revealed a high level of cross-model agreement on the importance of three standard turnover-theory components (i.e., employee morale, labor-market mechanisms, intentions to quit/stay).

Taylor, S. E., Scepansky, J. A., & Lounsbury, J W., & Gibson, L. W. (2009). Broad and narrow personality traits of women’s college students. Journal of College Student Retention, 11(4), 483-497.

Tichon, M. (2005)  Personnel Selection in the Transportation Sector:  An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to the Job Performance of Delivery Drivers.”  Doctoral, University of Tennessee. ABSTRACT: This criterion-based concurrent validation study was performed on a customized version of the Resource Associates’ Personal Style Inventory, a work-based personality measurement system based on the Five Factor model of personality and several narrow traits. Relationships between both broad and narrow bandwidth personality dimensions and important job performance criterion measures were examined. Four traits were found to be correlated with Overall Performance Rating of delivery drivers: Agreeableness, Comfort with Procedures, Attention to Detail, and Preference for Long Tenure. A stepwise regression method revealed that Comfort with Procedures was the best predictor of overall performance, accounting for 17% of the variance in the regression model.

Williamson, J.W., Lounsbury, J.W. (In Press) Key personality traits of engineers for innovation and technology development. Journal of Engineering Technology and Management.

Williamson, J. W., Pemberton, A. E., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2008). Personality traits of individuals in different specialties of librarianship. Journal of Documentation, 64(2), 273-286. ABSTRACT:  This study looked at the relationship of personality characteristics, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction of 1,300+ information professionals (academic reference librarians, archivists, catalogers, distance education librarians, public librarians, records managers, school media specialists, special librarians, systems librarians, and other information professionals). Using cluster analysis, the results study clearly demonstrate that different librarianship subspecialties can be differentiated by broad and narrow personality traits.

Williamson, J. W., Pemberton, A. E., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2006). An investigation of career and job satisfaction in relation to personality traits of information professionals. Library Quarterly, 75(2), 122-141.